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Multilateralism is characterized by multiple countries cooperating on an issue. Some international organizations operate multilaterally, including the United Nations. Regional or military alliances such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) are also multilateral in nature. Although larger countries often act unilaterally, as interconnectivity between countries increases, so does the use of multilateral policies and initiatives. Multilateralism is however more difficult to achieve than bilateralism or unilateralism as it involves reaching agreement between different states on a number of issues which can be divisive and therefore more complex.

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