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A political and social philosophy that sees the state as undesirable, oppressive, and unnecessary. Anarchism is centered on the belief that no man has the power or right to control the action of another; anarchists, therefore, reject all forms of coercive control and authority and claim that societies should be based on voluntary cooperation and free association of all members. Those who oppose this theory argue that an absence of law would automatically lead to chaos and disorder; in other words, some form of government is necessary in order to maintain an egalitarian and civil society. French politician and socialist, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, was the first person to label himself an “anarchist”. He developed this theory in his book What is Property? (1840), in which he argued that ownership of land by government and society was a form of theft, and that workers continue to possess a right of properly even after receiving remuneration for their labour.

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